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  2. What does it mean that 222 is written on the through-core capacitor? Does it mean this? 22*(10 squared)=2200pf=2.2nf?
  3. I want to make a speaker by myself. I watched a video called 5 minutes to make a speaker, so I made one myself. After making it, I connected the power amplifier but the sound was very small, and the output wire became hot after the power was turned on. What's the matter, I connected it directly, do I need to add any control? There are also how many turns of the coil. Please tell me how to make a simple speaker using what you can find at home. The steps are detailed, such as what material, how many turns of the coil, and where to place it.
  4. Could you post a schematic to make this more clear ?
  5. What is the fault that the switching power supply made with Uc3844 burns the output voltage terminal filter capacitor?
  6. When designing a switching power supply with UC3843, some of the current sampling circuits are taken through a coil, and some are taken directly from the source stage of the switching tube. How is it determined? How is that coil calculated?
  7. I connect pin 1 to +5V and pin 2 to the I/O port P1.0 of the microcontroller. Why no matter whether the value of P1.0 is 1 or 0, pins 3 and 4 of the optocoupler are not connected (measured by a multimeter)?
  8. Hi, there. Use the 25 MHz reference frequency that comes with the ADF4351 evaluation board, and the output frequency is 1422 MHz. The parameter design is shown in the figure below: Using the output frequency of the spectrum analyzer, Span is set to 100 Hz, VBW and RBW are automatically set, and the frequency is found to randomly jump within a range of tens of Hz near 1422 MHz. Excuse me, what is the frequency resolution of the ADF4351? Can the ADF4355-3 solve the problem? Thanks for the answer.
  9. Hello, everyone. I want to ask If the supply voltage of CD40106 is 12V, can the signal input voltage of CD40106 be 14V? Thanks in advance.
  10. The difference between RS3000-AP and RS3000 is given bolow, and there is a article introducing more about RS3000-AP, you can learn more from here: https://www.utmel.com/components/rs3000-ap-rectifier-diode-features-alternatives-comparison?id=263 Good Listening!
  11. Hi, guys,KAKU here! The block diagram of CC1000-RTB1 is shown below. It seems complicated. So... what is it used for? Thanks in advanced!
  12. This is an OPAMP - Operation Amplifier and can be used in various circuits. Do you have any schematic of board view ?
  13. What does OP27G used for? I saw it on a control card, but I don't know what's the function of it, who can tell me? Thanks in advance.
  14. Another comparison article of NE5532, hope it helps. https://www.apogeeweb.net/circuitry/NE5532-comparisons.html
  15. The most comprehensive comparison article of L293D and its similar models i could find on the internet, it's useful to me, hope it's helpful to guys as well. https://www.apogeeweb.net/circuitry/l293d-comparisons.html
  16. See you can learn most of the topics on Electrical and electronics here
  17. In this article, we have produced 7 simple 2N3904 circuits for electronic enthusiasts. These circuit diagrams are essentially beginner-friendly types. Hope the circuit diagrams are helpful to you.😀 Source: Apogeeweb Semiconductor Electronic 2N3904 Circuit Circuit 1: Thermostat controller composed of LM75 intelligent temperature sensor and 2N3904 transistor. Circuit 2 Circuit 3 Circuit 4 Circuit 5 Circuit 6: 2N3904 Sample Circuit-Amplifier Circuit 7:How to design a 13.56mhz sine wave power amplifier circuit with 2N3904
  18. Hey guys, this is Bob. Just saw this dope project and im trying to make a temperature measurement device follow this article, seems kinda complicated at first sight but im decided to give it a go lol https://www.apogeeweb.net/circuitry/AD590-temperature-sensor.html
  19. Hey guys, this is Bob, in today's blog we'll discuss the difference between 1N4148, 1N4007, 1N5819. I. Brief Introduction to 1N4148, 1N4007, 1N5819 1N4148 is a fast switching diode. It is fabricated in planar technology, and encapsulated in hermetically sealed leaded glass SOD27 (DO-35) packages. 1n4007 is a PN junction rectifier diode. These types of diodes allow only the flow of electrical current in one direction only. So, it can be used for the conversion of AC power to DC. 1N5819 is a Schottky diode with 2 pins, a peak current of 25A, and an operating temperature range of -65°C~ +125°C. It is commonly used in high frequency applications like Inverters, DC-DC converters etc. II. 1N4148 vs 1N4007 General difference 1. 1N4148 and 1N4007 can be replaced with each other in case of general small current (below 100mA, reverse voltage below 100V) and unimportant occasions. 2. 1N4148 is a small current switch tube, with a voltage resistance of 100V. 3. 1N4007 is a rectifier tube, 1A-1000V. There are many types of substitute models. Application difference Generally speaking, we mostly use 1n4148 when using freewheeling diodes; Since it is a freewheeling diode, it is generally used on inductive loads, such as: buzzer, relay; Several factors we have to consider are: 1. How fast is the freewheeling diode? Just take an appropriate value; for example, MS level, US level, NS level? 2. What is the current of the freewheeling diode? Look at the DS manual, don't burn it out. 3. How high is the voltage of the freewheeling diode? Look at the DS manual, don't break it. Conclusion 1N4148: 100V reverse withstand voltage and 150mA average forward current, very suitable for ordinary rectification in general occasions. The reverse recovery time of 4nS is sufficient for most occasions. 1N4007: Maximum forward average rectified current, 1A maximum reverse withstand voltage, 1000V low reverse leakage current, 5uA (maximum) forward voltage drop, 1.0V maximum reverse peak current, 30uA, reverse recovery time 30us; 1N4148: Generally, IN4148 is used in weak current inductive loads, such as buzzer and other small current inductive loads; 1N4007: Generally used in large current loads, such as industrial load (relay), power supply load; The biggest difference between them is the current, voltage, and response speed. In a sense, 1N4007 can replace 1N4148, as long as the response speed is not too demanding, 1N4148 is destined to be used only on weak current low-current inductive loads. III. 1N4148 vs 1N5819 High frequency, low voltage, and high current characteristics are the differences between 1N5819 diodes and ordinary diodes. It is widely used in switching power supplies, frequency converters, drivers and other circuits for high frequency, low voltage, high current rectification, freewheeling, and diode protection. 1N5819 is characterized by ultra-fast speed (low switching loss), extremely low forward voltage drop (low voltage loss), but also low reverse withstand voltage, usually less than 60V, suitable for low-voltage (no higher than 12V) switching power supply. Another use of 1N5819 diode is to use its reverse characteristic to stabilize voltage. Therefore, when the withstand voltage is low and the current is not large, you can consider using a Zener tube instead. 1N4148 is a point contact type low current high frequency switching diode with high speed, but the working current is only 150mA, which is widely used in circuits with higher signal frequencies. The reverse leakage of 1N5819 tube is relatively large, but it has the characteristics of small capacitance and high speed. But it is not as fast as 1N4148, after all, the purpose of 1N4148 is high frequency detection, not rectification.
  20. UC3842 is a fixed frequency current-mode PWM controller. This IC is specially designed for Off-Line and DC to DC converter applications with minimum external components. In the blog today, we'll have a further discussion about the application of UC3842 in the boost conversion circuit. Boost Conversion Circuit Overview Boost converters can reduce the output current and the capacitance and volume of the output filter capacitor under a certain output power, and are widely used in switching power supplies and electronic ballasts. Commonly used control methods are voltage feedback control and current feedback control. Current feedback control can force the inductor current to track the reference current signal, which has the advantage of fast response. When working in continuous current mode (CCM), the Boost converter needs to introduce multiple feedback methods. When working in discontinuous current mode (DCM), the converter automatically shapes the input current, and has a natural zero-current turn-on characteristic, requires a small inductance value, simple control, and is suitable for low-power applications. At present, there are many researches on the CCM mode of Boost conversion circuit, and many circuit models have been established, and gratifying research results have been obtained; the research on DCM mode is mainly DC/DC circuit, and the research on DCM mode in AC/DC circuit Very little. Based on the requirements of low-power switching power supply with low cost and high cost performance, this paper uses the universal UC3842 chip to design a Boost conversion circuit, analyzes the working characteristics and design points of the DCM mode, and simulates the rationality of the designed circuit verification. There are 2 circuit models of boost converter in DCM mode, named spectively as: Mathematical Model of DCM Working Mode and Working Conditions of DCM Mode. For detailed explanation to these two models>> DCM Circuit Design Based on UC3842 DCM Circuit Design Based on Adder The DCM-type Boost circuit includes two control loops, namely a voltage loop and a current loop. Its function is to eliminate the grid current spikes, so that the input current becomes a sinusoidal shape and is in phase with the input voltage. For a single switching cycle, the current in each switching cycle is required to be proportional to the input voltage. If for some reason the output voltage increases or the output current increases, the pulse width modulator will change the pulse width of the drive signal, that is, the duty cycle D, so that the average voltage or peak current after the chopping will decrease. So as to achieve the purpose of power factor correction. The DCM circuit schematic diagram based on the adder is shown in Figure below. The voltage outer loop uses an adder to replace the multiplier circuit. The feedback voltage on the grid side is used to ensure that the current signal is a sinusoidal signal, and the output feedback voltage is used to ensure that the output voltage is a constant value. The two are synthesized by the adder U2. The output signal is sent to the error amplifier in the UC3842 current loop, compared with a given reference voltage, and the comparison result is sent to the current measurement comparator. The peak current signal L(t) of the inductor in the main circuit is sent to the current measuring comparator at the same time, the comparison result of the two is sent to the R input of the RS latch in the PWM, the clock signal output by the internal oscillating circuit is sent to the S input end of the RS latch in the PWM, which works together to control the opening and closing of the switch tube M1. The follow-up simulation and analysis of DCM mode circuit>> Conclusion This text summarizes the Boost conversion circuit design scheme based on UC3842 chip. By analyzing the circuit of Boost converter in DCM mode, the circuit model of Boost converter in DCM mode is established, and the duty cycle change rule in this mode and the critical conditions for entering CCM mode from DCM mode are studied. Using the universal PWM modulator UC3842 chip, a Boost conversion circuit based on the principle of addition is designed, and the correctness of the conclusions obtained is verified by simulation software. The circuit simulation results show that the designed DCM circuit can meet the requirement of the inductor current to follow the voltage waveform completely and achieve the purpose of improving the power factor. This research provides design ideas for the development of low-cost low-power switching power supplies.
  21. Hello Everyone DrawBo is designed to draw and sketch any image you like. This is based on IOT and exploits the BLE features of nrf 52XXX series. Just upload the image onto DrawBo app and let it draw. It's artificial intelligence enables it to teach drawing in a unique step by step manner. DrawBo splits an image into various steps of simple lines and curves and then draws each step one by one. After drawing each step it, pauses for sometime. This enables the learner to grasp the knack easily. The attached images of drawing/sketches might fascinate you. Have a look DrawBo splits the image of mickey into different steps. Drawing of Mickey Sketch of a dog drawn by DrawBo Hope you might like this idea of sketching and teaching drawing. Looking forward for your views (or suggestions).Any comments or critiques are welcomed. Regards Ethan
  22. Story Global warming has lead to unpredictable climates; researchers around the world are using weather stations to observe record and analyse weather patterns to study climate changes and provide weather forecasts. These Weather stations normally comprises of few sensor to measure environmental parameters and a monitoring or logging system to analyze these parameters. In this tutorial we will learn how to build such a wireless IoT based weather station which can measure critical environmental parameters like Temperature, Humidity and Pressure. Also since our weather station is IoT enabled, we can send these parameters to a ThingSpeak channel (IoT cloud) where we can store, analyse and access the data remotely. weather station using Raspberry Pi earlier, which is pretty much similar to this project. We will be using he Arduino board along with DHT11 sensor, BMP180 sensor and ESP8266 wifi module. The DHT11 sensor senses the temperature and humidity, while BMP180 sensor calculates the pressure and ESP8266 is used for internet connectivity. In our previous project, we already learnt to use the DHT11 sensor to monitor temperature and humidity with Arduino, here in this project, we are adding another sensor (BMP180) to make a complete weather station using Arduino. Sending these data to ThingSpeak enables live monitoring from anywhere in the world and we can also view the logged data which will be stored on their website and even graph it over time to analyze it. Components Required Arduino Uno ESP8266 Wi-Fi Shield DHT11 Sensor BMP180 Sensor Breadboard Jumper Wires Circuit Diagram The complete circuit for Arduino based IoT Weather Station is shown below. The DHT11 sensor is powered by the 5V pin of the Arduino and its data pin is connected to pin 5 for one wire communication. The BMP180 sensor is powered by the 3.3V pin of Arduino and its data pins SCL (Serial Clock) and SDA (Serial Data) are connected to A4 and A5 pin of Arduino for I2C communication. The ESP8266 module is also powered by the 3.3V pin of the Arduino and its Tx and Rx pins are connected to Digital pins 2 and 3 of Arduino for serial communication. You can use the below table as reference for making your connections. Setting up your ThingSpeak Channel ThingSpeak is an open data platform that allows you to aggregate, visualize, and analyze live data in the cloud. You can control your devices using ThingSpeak, you can send data to ThingSpeak from your devices, and even you can create instant visualizations of live data, and send alerts using web services like Twitter and Twilio. ThingSpeak has integrated support from the numerical computing software MATLAB. MATLAB allows ThingSpeak users to write and execute MATLAB code to perform preprocessing, visualizations, and analyses. ThingSpeak takes minimum of 15 seconds to update your readings. We have also done other interesting projects with ThingSpeak like NodeMCU Temperature and Humidity Monitoring ESP32 Temperature and Humidity Monitoring ThingSpeak is an open data platform that allows you to aggregate, visualize, and analyze live data in the cloud. You can control your devices using ThingSpeak, you can send data to ThingSpeak from your devices, and even you can create instant visualizations of live data, and send alerts using web services like Twitter and Twilio. ThingSpeak has integrated support from the numerical computing software MATLAB. MATLAB allows ThingSpeak users to write and execute MATLAB code to perform preprocessing, visualizations, and analyses. Step 1: ThingSpeak Account Setup To create channel on ThingSpeak first you need to Sign up on ThingSpeak. In case if you already have an account on ThingSpeak, sign in using your id and password. For creating your account go to www.thinspeak.com Click on Sing up if you don’t have an account and if you already have an account click on sign in. After clicking on signup fill your details. After this verify your E-mail id and click on continue. Step 2: Create a Channel for Your Data Once you Sign in after your account verification, Create a new channel by clicking the “New Channel” button After clicking on “New Channel,” enter the Name and Description of the data you want to upload on this channel. Enter the name of your data ‘Humidity’ in Field1, ‘Temp’ in Field2 and ‘Pressure’ in Field3. If you want to use more Fields you can check the box next to Field option and enter the name and description of your data. After this click on save channel button to save your details. Step 3: API Key To send data to ThingSpeak, we need a unique API key, which we will use later in our code to upload our sensor data to Thingspeak Website. Click on “API Keys” button to get your unique API key for uploading your sensor data. Now copy your “Write API Key.” We will use this API key in our code. Code Explanation Programming part plays a very important role to perform all the operations in a project. As usual complete code is given at the end. Start the code by including all the required libraries and defining all the variables. #include <WiFi.h> #include <DHT.h> #include <Wire.h> #include <SoftwareSerial.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <SFE_BMP180.h> After this enter the WiFi name, password of your Wi-Fi router and then also enter the API key that you copied from the ThingSpeak channel. #define ssid "Enter Your WiFi Name Here " // "WiFi Name" #define pass "WiFi Password" // "Password" #define server = "api.thingspeak.com"; String apiKey ="Enter the API Key"; In void setup() function it connects with the Wi-Fi and starts the BMP180 and DHT11 sensor. void setup() { Wire.begin(); pressure.begin(); // enable debug serial Serial.begin(9600); delay(10); dht.begin(); Serial.begin(9600); Serial.println("AT"); delay(5000); if(Serial.find("OK")){ connectWiFi(); Using void Transmission() function we calculate the temperature, humidity and pressure using the BMP180 and DHT11 sensor. void Trsmission() { int8_t h = dht.readHumidity(); int16_t t = dht.readTemperature(TEMPTYPE); char status; double T,P,p0,a; status = pressure.startTemperature(); if (status != 0) { delay(status); status = pressure.getTemperature(T); if (status != 0) { status = pressure.startPressure(3); if (status != 0) { // Wait for the measurement to complete: delay(status); ……………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………….. These commands are used to connect with ThingSpeak server and then print the temperature, humidity and pressure values in different fields. String cmd = "AT+CIPSTART=\"TCP\",\""; cmd += "184.106.153.149"; // api.thingspeak.com cmd += "\",80"; ser.println(cmd); if(ser.find("Error")){ Serial.println("AT+CIPSTART error"); return; ……………………………………. // prepare GET string String getStr = "GET /update?api_key="; getStr += apiKey; getStr +="&field1="; getStr += String(strTemp); getStr +="&field2="; getStr += String(strHumid); getStr +="&field3="; getStr += String(strPres); getStr += "\r\n\r\n"; Running the IoT Arduino Weather Station Now Connect the Arduino with the laptop and choose the board and port correctly and then click the Upload button. After uploading the code, open the serial monitor. Make the baud rate of serial monitor as 9600. You will see your Wi-Fi Id, password and temperature, humidity and pressure values on serial monitor. Now navigate to the ThingSpeak channel and check your channel, you will see the temperature, humidity and pressure values like shown in the below graphs. This is how you can build Arduino Weather Station where the temperature, humidity and pressure can be monitored from anywhere in world over the internet. PCB Design Analysis Software. NextDFM Nextdfm Software NextDFM is a PCB problem detector and engineering tool by NextPCB, one of the most professional PCB manufacturers in the world based in China. NextDFM is a simple software which can be learnt easily by a non regular PCB designer also. The UI created by them is very simple and PCB design analysis can be done in just a few clicks. Download Software Help you quickly familiarize DFM design specifications and production needs to determine whether there are any manufacturing constraints Schematics Circuit Code Code Arduino #include <WiFi.h> #include <DHT.h> #include <Wire.h> #include <SoftwareSerial.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <SFE_BMP180.h> SFE_BMP180 pressure; #define DHTPIN 5 #define DHTTYPE DHT11 DHT dht(DHTPIN, DHTTYPE); #define TEMPTYPE 0 #define ALTITUDE 160 // Altitude from Bussero (MI) Italy #define ssid "Enter Your WiFi Name Here " // "WiFi Name" #define pass "WiFi Password" // "Password" #define server = "api.thingspeak.com"; String apiKey ="Enter the API Key"; char buffer[10]; char t_buffer[10]; char h_buffer[10]; char P_buffer[10]; SoftwareSerial ser(2, 3); // RX, TX void setup() { Wire.begin(); pressure.begin(); // enable debug serial Serial.begin(9600); Serial.println("AT"); delay(5000); if(Serial.find("OK")){ connectWiFi(); } void loop() { Trsmission(); // ESP8266 delay(60000); // 60 seconds } void Trsmission() { int8_t h = dht.readHumidity(); int16_t t = dht.readTemperature(TEMPTYPE); char status; double T,P,p0,a; status = pressure.startTemperature(); if (status != 0) { delay(status); status = pressure.getTemperature(T); if (status != 0) { status = pressure.startPressure(3); if (status != 0) { // Wait for the measurement to complete: delay(status); status = pressure.getPressure(P,T); if (status != 0) { p0 = pressure.sealevel(P,ALTITUDE); // we're at 1655 meters (Boulder, CO) a = pressure.altitude(P,p0); } else Serial.println("error retrieving pressure measurement\n"); } else Serial.println("error starting pressure measurement\n"); } else Serial.println("error retrieving temperature measurement\n"); } float temp = t; float humidity = h; float Pression = p0; String strTemp = dtostrf(temp, 4, 1, t_buffer); String strHumid = dtostrf(humidity, 4, 1, h_buffer); String strPres = dtostrf(Pression, 4, 2, P_buffer); Serial.print("Temperature: "); Serial.println(strTemp); Serial.print("Humidity: "); Serial.println(strHumid); Serial.print("Pression: "); Serial.println(strPres); String cmd = "AT+CIPSTART=\"TCP\",\""; cmd += "184.106.153.149"; // api.thingspeak.com cmd += "\",80"; ser.println(cmd); if(ser.find("Error")){ Serial.println("AT+CIPSTART error"); return; } if(ser.find("Error")){ Serial.println("AT+CIPSTART error"); return; } // prepare GET string String getStr = "GET /update?api_key="; getStr += apiKey; getStr +="&field1="; getStr += String(strTemp); getStr +="&field2="; getStr += String(strHumid); getStr +="&field3="; getStr += String(strPres); getStr += "\r\n\r\n"; // send data length cmd = "AT+CIPSEND="; cmd += String(getStr.length()); ser.println(cmd); //ser.print(getStr); if(ser.find(">")){ ser.print(getStr); } else{ ser.println("AT+CIPCLOSE"); // alert user Serial.println("AT+CIPCLOSE"); ser.println("AT+RST"); } char buffer[10] = ""; }
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